The 1918 flu pandemic followed on the heels of several devastating events that impacted Cherokee people in Indian Territory turned Oklahoma state. From 1898-1914 the federal government subjected the Five Tribes to the allotment of communally held lands and the dissolution of their tribal governments. Although Cherokee people, in theory, received full citizenship in the aftermath of Oklahoma statehood, Jim Crow policies and eugenics undermined the reality for many. The flu pandemic brought another wave of tragedy to Cherokee communities. Educational institutions, a crowning achievement of the Cherokees post removal, within the state of Oklahoma, became a source of further debasement. And yet, educational institutions, some much older and some new, also provided the vehicles, as they had pre-statehood, for Cherokee people to resist, maintain, and, paraphrasing ethnographer Albert L. Wahrhaftig, to change so that they could stay the same.